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Strawberry Diagnostic Key

Integrated Pest Management

Scientific Name(s)
Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, C. minor
Type
Arthropod (or insect)
Leaf Condition
Arthropods on young leaves
Field Distribution
Localized
Season
Early spring, Pre harvest, Harvest
Cropping System
Annual plasticulture, Perennial matted row

Biology

A number of different aphid species feed on strawberries in North Carolina, including the strawberry aphid (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii), potato aphid (Macrosiphium euphorbae), and green peach aphid (Myzuz persicae). Recent monitoring efforts have also found Chaetosiphon minor and the yellow rose aphid (Rhodobium porosum) to occur on strawberries in some parts of the state.

Most species have complex life cycles where they alternate between generations of parthenogenic ("self-cloning") females that give birth to live young, and generations of winged males and females that reproduce sexually. Immature aphids, called nymphs, can go from birth to adulthood in less than two weeks so populations have the potential to increase rapidly. Fortunately, a wide variety of natural enemies eat aphids, so damaging infestations are very rarely an issue in North Carolina strawberries.

Chaetosiphon minor

Chaetosiphon minor, one of the aphids found in North Carolina strawberries.

Matt Bertone

Yellow rose aphid.

Yellow rose aphid.

Matt Bertone

Damage

The honeydew that aphids excrete can cause sooty mold growth on fruit that will render it unmarketable, but population densities high enough to cause this type of damage are rare in North Carolina. Many aphids can vector viruses in strawberries. However, virus transmission is usually only problematic in perennial planting or nurseries, not in annual-grown strawberries.

Sampling

To sample for aphids, collect 40 randomly-selected leaves per acre. Inspect the leaves and count how many are infested with non-parasitized aphids. Visibly parasitized aphids appear brown, swollen, and dry, and have already been killed by a parasitoid wasp that developed inside them. Specific economic thresholds for North Carolina have not been established, but work in California indicates that infestation rates of above 30% are necessary to justify insecticide applications.

Management

Conventional

Systemic and foliar applied materials can be used against aphids in strawberries. Care must be taken when applying these materials to avoid harming bees. Refer to the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual for materials recommended for use against aphids in North Carolina and the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium Strawberry IPM Guide for regional recommendations.

Organic

OMRI approved insecticidal soaps are available for controlling aphids. Overuse of insecticidal soap can damage strawberry plants. Refer to the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual for materials recommended for use against aphids in North Carolina and the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium Strawberry IPM Guide for regional recommendations.

Biological

Aphids are frequently kept under control by numerous predatory insects including: parasitoid wasps, syrphid fly larvae, lacewing larvae and lady beetles and their larvae. These predators occur naturally around strawberry fields, and purchasing additional predators is not necessary or cost effective.

Authors:

Associate Professor and Extension Specialist
Entomology
Research Associate
Entomology
 This NC State FactSheet can be viewed and printed at https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/publication/aphids-in-strawberries.
NC State Extension